Papers and Articles

A selection of our published work

In this paper we bring the key findings of a series of air quality studies together and examine them through the lens of the overall European Air Quality policy making process, including the consistent application of the Principle of Proportionality enshrined in the EU Treaty itself. Hence the title, “Euro 7/VII under the microscope”



This study was commissioned by ACEA (The European Automobile Manufacturers' Association (ACEA) represents the 15 major Europe-based car, van, truck, and bus makers).

In order to put the Euro 7 pollutant emission Regulation into context and to add data to the Commission studies, the European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association (ACEA) tasked AERIS Europe to look at the impact that the roll-out of the latest new Euro 6/VI vehicles is having on air quality and air quality compliance rates, at EU, regional and city level. The study also explores the impact that a range of potential Euro 7/VII standards might have in the future.

The key findings are summarised in this new Aeris - Air Quality Report.

Supplementary reports have also been produced that focus in more detail on the three main pollutants: Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3) and Particulates (PM2.5 and PM10).

Direct links to each report:

Download - Main Air Quality Report

Download - Nitrogen Dioxide Supplement

Download - Ozone Supplement

Download - Particulates Supplement

A cost-benefit analysis of a range of Euro 7/VII scenarios and Pre-Euro 6/VI scrappage scenarios has also been prepared:

Download Cost-Benefit Analysis

Commissioned by Concawe the environmental organisation that represents European refining industry, the Urban Air Quality Study is a significant study with the aim of exploring the effect on urban air quality of vehicles and domestic combustion.

The study explored a number of different vehicle scenarios including modelling the non-compliance of vehicles with relevant Euro standards and the effect this has on urban air quality.


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Concawe - Urban Air Quality Study

Both in the context of the UN-ECE convention on long range transport of air pollution and EU air related legislation, the overarching legislative instruments designed to address concerns over the impact of emissions to air over the past two or more decades have been based on a commitment to the so-called 'effects driven' approach. Here we set out the essential elements that underpin this approach and compare and contrast it to the main alternative, the 'technology driven' approach.

This poses the key question as to how the cost-effectiveness principles used to allocate the emission ceilings can be preserved and systematically applied in the local permitting process. Unless vertical alignment from TSAP to NECD to local permitting is achieved, the principle of cost-effectiveness used in designing these overarching legislative instruments will not be realised in practice.

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The "i-Pass" Concept

In the European arena a key tool that has been at the centre of air quality policy development over the past two decades has been IIASA’s RAINS/GAINS Integrated Assessment Model. Both in the UN-ECE and EU context this has provided the all-important link between environmental/health impacts and cost-effective mitigation policies.

Although substantial progress has been made to make greater use of this powerful tool to explore the complete policy envelope, in Concawe’s view more needs to be done. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate, via a number of examples, the ‘policy benefits’ of a thorough sensitivity analysis. Today, perhaps more than at any time in recent history, it is imperative to ensure, to the best of our abilities, that we do not unwisely expend precious economic resources in any policy arena. In the context of the current EU Air Quality Policy Review, making full use of the policy lens that GAINS provides will contribute to such a goal.

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Uncertainties Under the Microsope

Analysing the implications of the Commission’s ambitious air pollution targets.

The European Commission adopted its ‘Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution’ (TSAP) in September 2005. This was the culmination of more than three years’ work undertaken in the Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) Programme. Since that time the other European Institutions have been scrutinising the strategy. In particular the EU Parliament (EP) recently indicated that, while they welcome the TSAP, they consider the targets are not ambitious enough.

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TSAP Under the Microscope (Review Article)

Reducing the sulphur content of marine fuels; could the cure be worse than the disease?

IMO's MARPOL Annex VI legislation has so far been based on the concept of SECAs, i.e. it seeks targeted sulphur reductions in those specific areas where emission density is high and sulphur impacts from ships are comparable to those from land-based sources. By focusing on emissions where they are the most harmful, rather than setting a global sulphur cap for all marine fuels, IMO has enabled reductions to have maximum benefit for human health and the environment while remaining cost-effective.

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Another Inconvenient Truth (Review Article)

What light does the CAFE programme shed on the concept of a common EU-wide BAT in the context of the IPPC Directive?

The ‘Clean Air For Europe’ (CAFE) programme, carried out over the past three years by the EU Commission’s DG Environment, has resulted in the recent publication of the ‘Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution’ (TSAP) which provides a ‘road map’ for the review of existing Directives and the drafting of any new legislation.

thumbnail of Euro-BAT An Expensive Suit (Review Article)
Euro-BAT An Expensive Suit (Review Article)

Correction factors can make all the difference.

The First Air Quality Daughter Directive (1999/30/EC) establishes limit values for ambient concentrations of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter (PM 10 ) and lead. This includes a 24-hour PM 10 compliance limit that entered into force in January 2005. This provision limits to 35 the number of exceedance days above a daily average concentration of 50 μg/m 3 . It was not long into that year before a number of Member States were expressing great concerns over their ability to meet this requirement at many of their measuring sites.

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PM Compliance Challenge (Review Article)